Flat Foot- Biomechanical Changes In Standing Posture

Posture is the relative disposition of body parts in relation to the physical position such as standing, lying down and sitting. Correct posture involves a straight spine, which maintains the natural curve of the spine in the human body. Correct posture minimizes the strain on the human body by maintaining balance of the muscle and skeletal system.This balanced musculoskeletal state protects the supporting structures in the body and prevents damage or protective deformation in all positions. Additionally, correct posture implies not inclining the body forward, backward, left or right.

There are various factors that affect posture like age, built,disease etc. Slight deviations from the optimal posture are to be expected in a normal population because of individual variations found in body structure. However, large deviations from optimal posture should be identified and corrected, to avoid excessive strain on the musculoskeletal structures.

Flat foot is a common disabling deformity the prevalence estimated between 3% to 25% in the general population. It may be either rigid or flexible. Causes of flat foot include posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, trauma, arthritis and congenital causes. The symptomatic flat foot presents with medial arch pain and can affect gait. The foot posture can affect pelvic alignment and the position of the spine. Deviations from normal alignment of one or more body segment causes changes in other segments too. Postural problems may originate in any part of the body and may cause increase stress throughout the musculoskeletal system. Evaluating the effect of deformity at the foot on standing and the subsequent correction of posture by therapeutic interventions and supportive management of the foot is necessary. It will help in the management of pain and posture deviation by focusing not only on the symptomatic segment but the system as a whole.

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